Klozur® SP

Klozur® SP is the oxidant of choice for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), because of its ability to treat a wide range of contaminants including chlorinated solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons and PAHs. When properly activated, Klozur SP provides an unmatched combination of oxidative power and control that can be delivered both safely and cost effectively.

Successful field applications of Klozur SP have been performed globally. These applications demonstrate the ability of Klozur activated persulfate to treat diverse organic contaminants of concern including: chlorinated ethenes, chlorinated ethanes, chlorinated methanes, BTEX, MTBE, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, 1,4-dioxane and pesticides.

To learn more about our entire Klozur persulfate portfolio of products please visit here.

Overview

KEY BENEFITS
  • Powerful multi-radical attack
  • Rapid destruction of recalcitrant compounds
  • Flexible activation based on site conditions
  • Highly soluble (up to 40 wt%)
  • Persistent in the subsurface
EXAMPLE CONTAMINANTS
  • Chlorinated Solvents
  • Petroleum
  • PAHs
TECHNOLOGY: IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is the introduction of an oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of oxidizing contaminants in soil and groundwater. ISCO is ideal for the elimination of contaminant concentrations in source zones and hot spots.

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS
  • Direct push injection
  • Fixed well injection
  • Soil blending
  • Case Studies
  • Contaminants Treated

    Chlorinated Solvents

    • Tetrachloroethene (PCE)
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      Tetrachloroethene (PCE)

      A colorless liquid that is mobile in groundwater, toxic at low levels, and has a high density, making cleanup activities more difficult than for oil spills.

    • Trichloroethene (TCE)
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      Trichloroethene (TCE)

      A chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used in dry cleaning and degreasing. Solubility in water 1.28 g / L and a log Kow of 320. May form dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Anticipated to be a human carcinogen. MCL of 5 ppb.

    • Dichloroethene (cis and trans DCE)
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      Dichloroethene (cis and trans DCE)

    • Trichloroethane (TCA)
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      Trichloroethane (TCA)

      A chloroalkane with two isomers (1,1,1- TCA and 1,1,2 – TCA) used widely as a solvent, especially in the electronics industry. It is considered insoluble in water and may for dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Low toxicity but may impact central nervous system. MCL of 0.2 ppm.

    • Dichloroethane (DCA)
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      Dichloroethane (DCA)

      A chlorinated hydrocarbon that is not easily soluble in water, but miscible with most organic solvents. A common source of the contaminant in drinking water is from the discharge from industrial chemical factories.

    • Carbon tetrachloride
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      Carbon tetrachloride

      An organic compound formerly used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent.

    • Chloroethane
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      Chloroethane

      Commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, it is a colorless, flammable gas or refrigerated liquid with a faintly sweet odor. Ethyl chloride is the least toxic of the chloroethanes. Exposure to ethyl chloride may occur from using consumer products containing it, including solvents, refrigerants, topical anesthetics, and in dyes, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

    • Chloroform
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      Chloroform

      A colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is considered somewhat hazardous. Chloroform may be released to the air as a result of its formation in the chlorination of drinking water, wastewater and swimming pools. Other sources include pulp and paper mills, hazardous waste sites, and sanitary landfills.

    • Chloromethane
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      Chloromethane

      Also called methyl chloride, R-40 or HCC 40, it is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes. Low levels of methyl chloride occur naturally in the environment, but higher levels may occur at chemical plants where it is or was made.

    • Chlorotoluene
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      Chlorotoluene

      A group of three isomeric chemical compounds. They (ortho-chlorotoluene, meta-chlorotoluene, and para-chlorotoluene) consist of a disubsituted benzene ring with one chlorine atom and one methyl group.

    • Methylene chloride
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      Methylene chloride

      Also called Dichloromethane (DCM), it is a colorless, volatile liquid with a moderately sweet aroma and is widely used as a solvent in paint strippers and removers; as a process solvent in the manufacturing of drugs, pharmaceuticals, and film coatings; as a metal cleaning and finishing solvent in electronics manufacturing; and as an agent in urethane foam blowing.

    • Vinyl chloride
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      Vinyl chloride

      An organochloride used chiefly in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and may be a daughter product formed during the reductive dechlorination of TCE and DCE. Solubility in water 2.7 g / L and a Kow of 15. It is a known human carcinogen and causes liver damage. MCL of 2 ppb.

    • Dichloropropane
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      Dichloropropane

      A colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor, it is used to make other organic chemicals, lead free gasoline, paper coating, soil fumigant for nematodes, and insecticide for stored grain.

    • Dichloropropene
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      Dichloropropene

      A colorless liquid with a sweet smell that is a byproduct in the chlorination of propene to make allyl chloride. The general public may be exposed via inhalation near source areas or from the consumption of contaminated drinking water from wells near some hazardous waste sites.

    • Hexachlorobutadiene
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      Hexachlorobutadiene

      A colorless liquid at room temperature that has an odor similar to that of turpentine. Also known as HCBD, it is primarily produced in chlorinolysis plants as a by-product in the production of carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene.

    • Tetrachloroethane
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      Tetrachloroethane

      1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130a) - A colorless liquid with a sweet chloroform-like odor that is used as a solvent and in the production of wood stains and varnishes. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130) – A chlorinated derivative of ethane. It has the highest solvent power of any chlorinated hydrocarbon.

    • Trichloropropane
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      Trichloropropane

      Produced via the chlorination of propylene and as a byproduct of processes primarily used to produce.

    BTEX

    • Benzene
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      Benzene

      A colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell, it is a natural constituent of crude oil, an aromatic hydrocarbon, and one of the most elementary petrochemicals. The greatest use of benzene is as a building block for making plastics, rubber, resins and synthetic fabrics like nylon and polyester. Other uses include: as a solvent in printing, paints, dry cleaning, etc.

    • Toluene
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      Toluene

      An aromatic hydrocarbon and a constituent of crude oil and gasoline, widely used as a solvent. Solubility in water 0.47 g / L and a log Kow of 2.73. May form light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs). Little carcinogenic potential. MCL of 1 ppm.

    • Ethylbenzene
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      Ethylbenzene

      A highly flammable, colorless liquid with an odor similar to gasoline. The greatest use — more than 99 percent — of ethylbenzene is to make styrene, another organic liquid used as a building block for many plastics. It is also used as a solvent for coatings, and in the making of rubber and plastic wrap.

    • Xylenes
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      Xylenes

      An aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of a benzene ring with two methyl substituents, Xylenes are mainly produced as part of the BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylenes) extracted from the product of catalytic reforming known as "reformate".

    PAHs

    • Acenaphthene
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      Acenaphthene

      A colorless solid that consists of naphthalene with an ethylene bridge connecting positions 1 and 8. Coal tar consists of about 0.3% of this compound.

    • Acenaphthylene
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      Acenaphthylene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of acenaphthene. Like most PAHs, acenaphthylene is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.

    • Anthracene
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      Anthracene

      A solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), obtained from coal tar. Anthracene is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.

    • Benzo(a)anthracene
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      Benzo(a)anthracene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the chemical formula C18H12.

    • Benzo(a)pyrene
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      Benzo(a)pyrene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) found in coal tar, listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC.

    • Benzo(b)fluoranthene
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      Benzo(b)fluoranthene

      An organic compound with the chemical formula C20H12.

    • Benzo(ghi)perylene
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      Benzo(ghi)perylene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the chemical formula C22H12.

    • Chrysene
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      Chrysene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is a natural constituent of coal tar and creosote, a chemical used to preserve wood.

    • Dibenzo(ah)anthracene
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      Dibenzo(ah)anthracene

      A common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) made of five fused benzene rings. It is white to light yellow crystalline solid.

    • Fluorene
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      Fluorene

      Obtained from coal tar, it is insoluble in water and soluble in benzene and ether, and is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.

    • Naphthalene
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      Naphthalene

      The simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, it is a white crystalline solid with a characteristic odor that is detectable at concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm by mass. Most naphthalene is derived from coal tar.

    • Phenathrene
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      Phenathrene

      A composite of phenyl and anthracene. Phenanthrene appears as a white powder having blue fluorescence.

    • Pyrene
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      Pyrene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of four fused benzene rings, resulting in a flat aromatic system. Pyrene is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.

    Oxygenates

    • Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)
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      Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

      Derived from fossil fuels and almost exclusively used as a fuel component in fuel for gasoline engines.

    • Tert-butyl alcohol (TBA)
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      Tert-butyl alcohol (TBA)

      Derived commercially from isobutane as a co-product of propylene oxide production, it is used as a solvent, ethanol denaturant, paint remover ingredient, and gasoline octane booster and oxygenate.

    Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    • GRO (gasoline range organics)
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      GRO (gasoline range organics)

      A colorless liquid with characteristic odor that is found in petroleum and used as a fuel and a solvent; it reacts with strong oxidants, which generates fire and explosion hazard.

    • DRO (diesel range organics)
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      DRO (diesel range organics)

      An oily, colorless liquid, that is used as a solvent, in organic synthesis, as a distillation chaser, in jet fuel research, in manufacturing of paraffin products; and in the rubber industry, paper processing industry, and a component of gasoline, which may result in its release to the environment through waste streams.

    • ORO (oil range organics >C20 alkane)
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      ORO (oil range organics >C20 alkane)

      Colorless crystals or a white crystalline solid that is found in paraffin waxes used to form candles, and is a component of fuel oil and lubricating oil.

    • Creosote (coal tar)
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      Creosote (coal tar)

      The portion of chemical products obtained by the distillation of a tar that remains heavier than water. It is used as a wood preservative and contains a number of phenols, cresols, and other organic compounds.

    Phenols

    • Phenol
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      Phenol

      A white crystalline solid that is volatile; it was first extracted from coal tar, but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) from petroleum.

    • 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol
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      4-chloro-3-methyl phenol

      A pinkish to white crystalline solid with a phenolic odor. Also known as p-Chlorocresol, it is used as an antiseptic and preservative.

    • 2-chlorophenol
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      2-chlorophenol

      An organic compound that is a colorless to light brown liquid and is a derivative of phenol. It is an intermediate in the polychlorination of phenol.

    • 2,4-dichlorophenol
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      2,4-dichlorophenol

      A colorless crystalline solid with a medicinal odor. Used primarily as an intermediate in the preparation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).

    • 2,4-dinitrophenol
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      2,4-dinitrophenol

      An inhibitor of efficient energy (ATP) production in cells with mitochondria. Commercial DNP is primarily used for scientific research and in manufacturing.

    • 4-nitrophenol
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      4-nitrophenol

      A phenolic compound that is used in the manufacturing of methyl and ethyl parathion, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (acetominophen), dyestuffs and as a leather treatment agent, which may result in its release to the environment through waste streams.

    • Pentachlorophenol
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      Pentachlorophenol

      Pure pentachlorophenol exists as colorless crystals and impure pentachlorophenol is dark gray to brown and exists as dust, beads, or flakes. It is used as a pesticide, a disinfectant and as a wood preservative for utility poles, railroad ties, and wharf pilings.

    Chlorobenzenes

    • Chlorobenzene
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      Chlorobenzene

      Chlorobenzene will enter the atmosphere from fugitive emissions connected with its use as a solvent in pesticide formulations and as an industrial solvent. Releases into water and onto land will dissipate due to vaporization into the atmosphere and slow biodegradation in the soil or water.

    • Dichlorobenzene
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      Dichlorobenzene

      1,2-Dichlorobenzene or ortho-dichlorobenzene - A colourless liquid that is poorly soluble in water but miscible with most organic solvents. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene or meta-dichlorobenzene. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene or para-dichlorobenzene - A colorless solid with a strong odor.

    • Trichlorobenzene
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      Trichlorobenzene

      1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene - A colorless liquid used as a solvent for a variety of compounds and materials. 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene - Colorless crystals, whereas the other isomers are liquids at room temperature.

    Fluorinated Compounds

    Pesticides & Herbicides

    • Kepone
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      Kepone

      A highly chlorinated organic pesticide that was used as an insecticide. Also known as chlordecone, it is a tan to white, crystalline, odorless solid.

    • α-Chlordane
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      α-Chlordane

      An organochlorine compound used as a pesticide.

    • Heptachlor Epoxide
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      Heptachlor Epoxide

      Created when a substance called heptachlor is released to the environment and mixes with oxygen. It was used to kill termites found in the home and farmers used it to kill insects found on farm crops.

    • Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)
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      Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)

      An organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.

    • DDT, DDD, DDE
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      DDT, DDD, DDE

      Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely–related compounds. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) make up the balance. DDE and DDD are also the major metabolites and breakdown products in the environment.

    • Toxaphene
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      Toxaphene

      A mixture of approximately 200 organic compounds, formed by the chlorination of camphene.

    • Dieldrin
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      Dieldrin

      Can be formed from the synthesis of hexachloro-1,3-cyclopentadiene with norbornadiene in a Diels-Alder reaction, followed by epoxidation of the norbornene ring and is known to resist bacterial and chemical breakdown processes in the environment.

    • 2,4-D
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      2,4-D

      Manufactured from chloroacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenol, which is itself produced by chlorination of phenol.

    • 2,4,5-T
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      2,4,5-T

      A synthetic auxin.

    • Endrin
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      Endrin

      is an organochloride that was primarily used as an insecticide and rodenticide and infamous as a persistent organic pollutant and banned in many countries.

    Miscellaneous

    • Dioxins/Furans
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      Dioxins/Furans

      The abbreviated or short name for a family of toxic substances that all share a similar chemical structure. Dioxins, in their purest form, look like crystals or a colorless solid. Most are not man made or produced intentionally, but are created when other chemicals or products are made. Of all of the dioxins and furans, one, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzo-dioxin (2,3,7,8 TCDD) is considered the most toxic.

    • Acetone
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      Acetone

      A colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest ketone, that is mainly released into the environment from industrial activity, but also is naturally released from plants, trees, volcanic gases and forest fires.

    • 4-methyl-2-pentanone
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      4-methyl-2-pentanone

      A colorless liquid, a ketone, is widely used as a solvent.

    • 1,4-dioxane
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      1,4-dioxane

      A heterocyclic organic compound primarily used as a chlorinated solvent stabilizer.

    • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
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      Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

      Odorless, tasteless, clear to pale-yellow, viscous liquids (highly chlorinated mixtures are more viscous and deeper yellow), that are found in electric motors, transformers and capacitors.

    • Bis(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate
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      Bis(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate

      A compound that is the most common of the class of phthalate plasticizers.

    • Nitrobenzene
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      Nitrobenzene

      A water-insoluble pale yellow oil with an almond-like odor, often found in floor polishes, leather dressings and paint solvents.

    • Propylbenzene
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      Propylbenzene

    • 4-iso-propyltoluene
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      4-iso-propyltoluene

    • Styrene
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      Styrene

      A colorless oily liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations confer a less pleasant odor, and is often found in discharge from rubber and plastic factories or leaching from landfills.

    • Trimethylbenzene
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      Trimethylbenzene

      Constitute a group of substances of aromatic hydrocarbons, which structure consists of a benzene ring with three methyl groups (–CH3) as a substituent.

    • n-butylbenzene
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      n-butylbenzene

      Usually released through wastes streams.

    • Carbon Disulfide (CS₂)
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      Carbon Disulfide (CS₂)

      Frequently used as a building block in organic chemistry as well as an industrial and chemical non-polar solvent, and used in fumigation, as an insecticide, as a solvent and in manufacturing.

    Energetics

    • TNT
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      TNT

      A yellow colored solid sometimes used as a reagent in chemical synthesis, found in military explosives or industrial applications.

    • DNT
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      DNT

      A pale yellow crystalline solid that is well known as a precursor to TNT, and is usually used in the production of toluene diisocyanate, which is used to produce flexible polyurethane foams.

    • Nitroglycerine
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      Nitroglycerine

      A heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid used in medicine, industry, and in explosives.

    • HMX
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      HMX

    • RDX
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      RDX

      An explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications.

    Heavy Metals

    • Arsenic
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      Arsenic

      A metalloid used mainly for strengthening alloys of copper and especially lead, that could be found as a result of erosion of natural deposits or runoff from orchards, glass and electronics production wastes.