EHC® Liquid Reagent

EHC® Liquid ISCR reagent is a concentrated, buffered, microemulsion of a controlled-release, food-grade carbon, nutrients, and iron designed for on-site dilution with cold water.

It is a liquid variant of PeroxyChem’s EHC® ISCR Reagent and is specially designed for injection via existing wells or hydraulic injection networks for the treatment of a wide range of groundwater contaminants. EHC Liquid is composed primarily of ELS® Microemulsion, a controlled-release organic carbon substrate and EHC Liquid mix, an organo-ferrous compound (both food-grade). The anaerobic bioremediation processes and abiotic dechlorination reactions promoted by EHC Liquid are effective at remediating chlorinated solvents, energetics, and pesticides/herbicides.

Overview

Key Benefits
  • Stimulation of both abiotic and biotic dechlorination mechanisms
  • Structurally bound nutrients phosphorous and nitrogen released to bacteria
  • Anticipated longevity of 2-3 yrs. depending on site conditions
  • Easy to handle and cold water soluble
EXAMPLE CONTAMINANTS
  • Chlorinated solvents
  • Energetic compounds
  • Most pesticides
  • Haloalkanes
  • Nitrate compounds
  • Chromium
IN SITU CHEMICAL REDUCTION

In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) is the combination of abiotic chemical reduction, using zero valent iron(ZVI) and/or reduced minerals (magnetite, pyrite), coupled with anaerobic bioremediation for the effective treatment of chlorinated solvents, pesticides, and energetics. Physical, chemical, and biological processes combine to create an extremely reduced environment that stimulates chemical and microbiological dechlorination of otherwise persistent compounds.

Key Functions
  • Direct push injection
  • Gravity feed through existing wells
  • Low pressure injections
  • Recirculation systems
  • Case Studies
    • EHC® Liquid Application to Treat TCA and DCE Under a Building

      The objective of the project was to demonstrate the efficacy of EHC® Liquid Injections for treatment of residual TCA and DCE contamination with limited access beneath the building and to reduce contaminant mass in the deeper saturated zone (20-25 ft bgs).

    • EHC® Liquid Treatment of PCE at a Dry Cleaner Site in Millbrae, California

      A relatively stagnant groundwater plume of PCE presents a vapor intrusion risk to the existing dry cleaning facility and adjacent businesses. Evidence of complete reductive dechlorination of PCE was observed over a relatively short time period and Dhc inoculation appears to have been successful.

    • EHC® Liquid Pilot Application to Treat CVOCs at a Former Industrial Site

      Groundwater was is impacted with chlorinated solvents (primarily PCE, TCE and 1,2-DCE). A pilot test was first conducted in Nov 2011 by injecting EHC® Liquid reagent into the shallow aquifer. PCE and TCE concentrations were reduced to concentrations below the GWQS within 9 months following the pilot-scale treatment.

    • Flux Reduction of TCE with use of an EHC® Liquid PRB

      The objective of this pilot test was to demonstrate flux reduction of TCE downgradient of an EHC® Liquid permeable reactive barrier (PRB). The flux calculations demonstrated a 73% reduction in 8 months. Advanced techniques such as real-time monitoring, microbial characterization and diagnostics and hi-res imaging were used to characterize and track remedial progress.

  • Contaminants Treated

    Chlorinated Solvents

    • Tetrachloroethene (PCE)
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      Tetrachloroethene (PCE)

      A colorless liquid that is mobile in groundwater, toxic at low levels, and has a high density, making cleanup activities more difficult than for oil spills.

    • Trichloroethene (TCE)
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      Trichloroethene (TCE)

      A chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used in dry cleaning and degreasing. Solubility in water 1.28 g / L and a log Kow of 320. May form dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Anticipated to be a human carcinogen. MCL of 5 ppb.

    • Dichloroethene (cis and trans DCE)
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      Dichloroethene (cis and trans DCE)

    • Trichloroethane (TCA)
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      Trichloroethane (TCA)

      A chloroalkane with two isomers (1,1,1- TCA and 1,1,2 – TCA) used widely as a solvent, especially in the electronics industry. It is considered insoluble in water and may for dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Low toxicity but may impact central nervous system. MCL of 0.2 ppm.

    • Dichloroethane (DCA)
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      Dichloroethane (DCA)

      A chlorinated hydrocarbon that is not easily soluble in water, but miscible with most organic solvents. A common source of the contaminant in drinking water is from the discharge from industrial chemical factories.

    • Carbon tetrachloride
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      Carbon tetrachloride

      An organic compound formerly used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent.

    • Chloroethane
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      Chloroethane

      Commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, it is a colorless, flammable gas or refrigerated liquid with a faintly sweet odor. Ethyl chloride is the least toxic of the chloroethanes. Exposure to ethyl chloride may occur from using consumer products containing it, including solvents, refrigerants, topical anesthetics, and in dyes, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

    • Chloroform
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      Chloroform

      A colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is considered somewhat hazardous. Chloroform may be released to the air as a result of its formation in the chlorination of drinking water, wastewater and swimming pools. Other sources include pulp and paper mills, hazardous waste sites, and sanitary landfills.

    • Chloromethane
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      Chloromethane

      Also called methyl chloride, R-40 or HCC 40, it is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes. Low levels of methyl chloride occur naturally in the environment, but higher levels may occur at chemical plants where it is or was made.

    • Chlorotoluene
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      Chlorotoluene

      A group of three isomeric chemical compounds. They (ortho-chlorotoluene, meta-chlorotoluene, and para-chlorotoluene) consist of a disubsituted benzene ring with one chlorine atom and one methyl group.

    • Methylene chloride
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      Methylene chloride

      Also called Dichloromethane (DCM), it is a colorless, volatile liquid with a moderately sweet aroma and is widely used as a solvent in paint strippers and removers; as a process solvent in the manufacturing of drugs, pharmaceuticals, and film coatings; as a metal cleaning and finishing solvent in electronics manufacturing; and as an agent in urethane foam blowing.

    • Vinyl chloride
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      Vinyl chloride

      An organochloride used chiefly in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and may be a daughter product formed during the reductive dechlorination of TCE and DCE. Solubility in water 2.7 g / L and a Kow of 15. It is a known human carcinogen and causes liver damage. MCL of 2 ppb.

    • Dichloropropane
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      Dichloropropane

      A colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor, it is used to make other organic chemicals, lead free gasoline, paper coating, soil fumigant for nematodes, and insecticide for stored grain.

    • Dichloropropene
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      Dichloropropene

      A colorless liquid with a sweet smell that is a byproduct in the chlorination of propene to make allyl chloride. The general public may be exposed via inhalation near source areas or from the consumption of contaminated drinking water from wells near some hazardous waste sites.

    • Hexachlorobutadiene
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      Hexachlorobutadiene

      A colorless liquid at room temperature that has an odor similar to that of turpentine. Also known as HCBD, it is primarily produced in chlorinolysis plants as a by-product in the production of carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene.

    • Tetrachloroethane
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      Tetrachloroethane

      1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130a) - A colorless liquid with a sweet chloroform-like odor that is used as a solvent and in the production of wood stains and varnishes. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130) – A chlorinated derivative of ethane. It has the highest solvent power of any chlorinated hydrocarbon.

    • Trichloropropane
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      Trichloropropane

      Produced via the chlorination of propylene and as a byproduct of processes primarily used to produce.

    Phenols

    • 2-chlorophenol
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      2-chlorophenol

      An organic compound that is a colorless to light brown liquid and is a derivative of phenol. It is an intermediate in the polychlorination of phenol.

    • 2,4-dichlorophenol
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      2,4-dichlorophenol

      A colorless crystalline solid with a medicinal odor. Used primarily as an intermediate in the preparation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).

    • 2,4-dinitrophenol
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      2,4-dinitrophenol

      An inhibitor of efficient energy (ATP) production in cells with mitochondria. Commercial DNP is primarily used for scientific research and in manufacturing.

    • 4-nitrophenol
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      4-nitrophenol

      A phenolic compound that is used in the manufacturing of methyl and ethyl parathion, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (acetominophen), dyestuffs and as a leather treatment agent, which may result in its release to the environment through waste streams.

    • Pentachlorophenol
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      Pentachlorophenol

      Pure pentachlorophenol exists as colorless crystals and impure pentachlorophenol is dark gray to brown and exists as dust, beads, or flakes. It is used as a pesticide, a disinfectant and as a wood preservative for utility poles, railroad ties, and wharf pilings.

    Chlorobenzenes

    • Chlorobenzene
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      Chlorobenzene

      Chlorobenzene will enter the atmosphere from fugitive emissions connected with its use as a solvent in pesticide formulations and as an industrial solvent. Releases into water and onto land will dissipate due to vaporization into the atmosphere and slow biodegradation in the soil or water.

    • Dichlorobenzene
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      Dichlorobenzene

      1,2-Dichlorobenzene or ortho-dichlorobenzene - A colourless liquid that is poorly soluble in water but miscible with most organic solvents. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene or meta-dichlorobenzene. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene or para-dichlorobenzene - A colorless solid with a strong odor.

    • Trichlorobenzene
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      Trichlorobenzene

      1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene - A colorless liquid used as a solvent for a variety of compounds and materials. 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene - Colorless crystals, whereas the other isomers are liquids at room temperature.

    Haloalkanes

    Pesticides & Herbicides

    • α-Chlordane
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      α-Chlordane

      An organochlorine compound used as a pesticide.

    • Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)
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      Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)

      An organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.

    • DDT, DDD, DDE
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      DDT, DDD, DDE

      Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely–related compounds. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) make up the balance. DDE and DDD are also the major metabolites and breakdown products in the environment.

    • Toxaphene
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      Toxaphene

      A mixture of approximately 200 organic compounds, formed by the chlorination of camphene.

    • Dieldrin
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      Dieldrin

      Can be formed from the synthesis of hexachloro-1,3-cyclopentadiene with norbornadiene in a Diels-Alder reaction, followed by epoxidation of the norbornene ring and is known to resist bacterial and chemical breakdown processes in the environment.

    • 2,4-D
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      2,4-D

      Manufactured from chloroacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenol, which is itself produced by chlorination of phenol.

    • 2,4,5-T
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      2,4,5-T

      A synthetic auxin.

    • Endrin
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      Endrin

      is an organochloride that was primarily used as an insecticide and rodenticide and infamous as a persistent organic pollutant and banned in many countries.

    Miscellaneous

    • Nitrates
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      Nitrates

      Produced by a number of species of nitrifying bacteria and are mainly produced for use as fertilizers in agriculture because of their high solubility and biodegradability.

    Energetics

    • TNT
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      TNT

      A yellow colored solid sometimes used as a reagent in chemical synthesis, found in military explosives or industrial applications.

    • DNT
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      DNT

      A pale yellow crystalline solid that is well known as a precursor to TNT, and is usually used in the production of toluene diisocyanate, which is used to produce flexible polyurethane foams.

    • Nitroglycerine
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      Nitroglycerine

      A heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid used in medicine, industry, and in explosives.

    • HMX
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      HMX

    • RDX
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      RDX

      An explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications.

    • Perchlorate
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      Perchlorate

      The salts derived from perchloric acid, that are often found near contaminated industrial sites.

    Heavy Metals

    • Chromium
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      Chromium

      A steely-gray, lustrous, hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point, found in discharge from steel and pulp mills, and erosion of natural deposits.