ELS® is a lecithin-based substrate of food-grade carbon used to enhance anaerobic bioremediation. ELS is available as a 25% microemulsion or as a 100% concentrate.
ELS® is a lecithin-based substrate of food-grade carbon used to enhance anaerobic bioremediation. By creating reducing conditions and serving as an electron donor for dechlorinating bacteria, ELS promotes enhanced reductive dechlorination reactions. ELS is delivered as a either a 25% microemulsion or a 100% concentrate, that is cold water soluble and can be applied via existing wells, hydraulic injection networks or direct push technology. Lecithin is composed primarily of phospholipids, which have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions in their molecular structure. As a result, ELS can be expected to form a more stable emulsion compared to oils that are strictly hydrophobic compounds, making it easy to apply and handle.
Anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents involves the use of the contaminants as the terminal electron acceptor (respiratory substrate) i.e. instead of oxygen, nitrate, sulfate etc. This process could be enhanced by the addition of organic carbon, which serves as an electron donor. The addition of organic carbon to the subsurface will support the growth of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria in the groundwater environment. As the bacteria feed on the carbon, the bacteria consume dissolved oxygen and other electron acceptors, thereby reducing the redox potential in groundwater creating conditions favorable for reductive dechlorination to occur. Furthermore, as the bacteria ferment the organic carbon, they release a variety of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as lactic, propionic and butyric acids, which diffuse from the site of fermentation into the groundwater plume and serve as electron donors for other bacteria including dehalogenators and halorespiring species.
Comparison of In Situ Chemical Reduction (ISCR) to Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination to treat trichloroethene in an aerobic aquifer.
A colorless liquid that is mobile in groundwater, toxic at low levels, and has a high density, making cleanup activities more difficult than for oil spills.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used in dry cleaning and degreasing. Solubility in water 1.28 g / L and a log Kow of 320. May form dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Anticipated to be a human carcinogen. MCL of 5 ppb.
A chloroalkane with two isomers (1,1,1- TCA and 1,1,2 – TCA) used widely as a solvent, especially in the electronics industry. It is considered insoluble in water and may for dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Low toxicity but may impact central nervous system. MCL of 0.2 ppm.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that is not easily soluble in water, but miscible with most organic solvents. A common source of the contaminant in drinking water is from the discharge from industrial chemical factories.
An organic compound formerly used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent.
Commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, it is a colorless, flammable gas or refrigerated liquid with a faintly sweet odor. Ethyl chloride is the least toxic of the chloroethanes. Exposure to ethyl chloride may occur from using consumer products containing it, including solvents, refrigerants, topical anesthetics, and in dyes, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.
A colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is considered somewhat hazardous. Chloroform may be released to the air as a result of its formation in the chlorination of drinking water, wastewater and swimming pools. Other sources include pulp and paper mills, hazardous waste sites, and sanitary landfills.
Also called methyl chloride, R-40 or HCC 40, it is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes. Low levels of methyl chloride occur naturally in the environment, but higher levels may occur at chemical plants where it is or was made.
A group of three isomeric chemical compounds. They (ortho-chlorotoluene, meta-chlorotoluene, and para-chlorotoluene) consist of a disubsituted benzene ring with one chlorine atom and one methyl group.
Also called Dichloromethane (DCM), it is a colorless, volatile liquid with a moderately sweet aroma and is widely used as a solvent in paint strippers and removers; as a process solvent in the manufacturing of drugs, pharmaceuticals, and film coatings; as a metal cleaning and finishing solvent in electronics manufacturing; and as an agent in urethane foam blowing.
An organochloride used chiefly in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and may be a daughter product formed during the reductive dechlorination of TCE and DCE. Solubility in water 2.7 g / L and a Kow of 15. It is a known human carcinogen and causes liver damage. MCL of 2 ppb.
A colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor, it is used to make other organic chemicals, lead free gasoline, paper coating, soil fumigant for nematodes, and insecticide for stored grain.
A colorless liquid with a sweet smell that is a byproduct in the chlorination of propene to make allyl chloride. The general public may be exposed via inhalation near source areas or from the consumption of contaminated drinking water from wells near some hazardous waste sites.
A colorless liquid at room temperature that has an odor similar to that of turpentine. Also known as HCBD, it is primarily produced in chlorinolysis plants as a by-product in the production of carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene.
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130a) - A colorless liquid with a sweet chloroform-like odor that is used as a solvent and in the production of wood stains and varnishes. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130) – A chlorinated derivative of ethane. It has the highest solvent power of any chlorinated hydrocarbon.
Produced via the chlorination of propylene and as a byproduct of processes primarily used to produce.
An organic compound that is a colorless to light brown liquid and is a derivative of phenol. It is an intermediate in the polychlorination of phenol.
A colorless crystalline solid with a medicinal odor. Used primarily as an intermediate in the preparation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).
An inhibitor of efficient energy (ATP) production in cells with mitochondria. Commercial DNP is primarily used for scientific research and in manufacturing.
A phenolic compound that is used in the manufacturing of methyl and ethyl parathion, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (acetominophen), dyestuffs and as a leather treatment agent, which may result in its release to the environment through waste streams.
Pure pentachlorophenol exists as colorless crystals and impure pentachlorophenol is dark gray to brown and exists as dust, beads, or flakes. It is used as a pesticide, a disinfectant and as a wood preservative for utility poles, railroad ties, and wharf pilings.
Chlorobenzene will enter the atmosphere from fugitive emissions connected with its use as a solvent in pesticide formulations and as an industrial solvent. Releases into water and onto land will dissipate due to vaporization into the atmosphere and slow biodegradation in the soil or water.
1,2-Dichlorobenzene or ortho-dichlorobenzene - A colourless liquid that is poorly soluble in water but miscible with most organic solvents. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene or meta-dichlorobenzene. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene or para-dichlorobenzene - A colorless solid with a strong odor.
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene - A colorless liquid used as a solvent for a variety of compounds and materials. 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene - Colorless crystals, whereas the other isomers are liquids at room temperature.
A colorless gas.
A colorless, nearly odorless liquid that boils at about room temperature.
A very unreactive chlorofluorocarbon, that will stay in the atmosphere for a great deal of time if it is released.
An organochlorine compound used as a pesticide.
An organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.
Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely–related compounds. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) make up the balance. DDE and DDD are also the major metabolites and breakdown products in the environment.
A mixture of approximately 200 organic compounds, formed by the chlorination of camphene.
Can be formed from the synthesis of hexachloro-1,3-cyclopentadiene with norbornadiene in a Diels-Alder reaction, followed by epoxidation of the norbornene ring and is known to resist bacterial and chemical breakdown processes in the environment.
Manufactured from chloroacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenol, which is itself produced by chlorination of phenol.
A synthetic auxin.
is an organochloride that was primarily used as an insecticide and rodenticide and infamous as a persistent organic pollutant and banned in many countries.
Produced by a number of species of nitrifying bacteria and are mainly produced for use as fertilizers in agriculture because of their high solubility and biodegradability.
A yellow colored solid sometimes used as a reagent in chemical synthesis, found in military explosives or industrial applications.
A pale yellow crystalline solid that is well known as a precursor to TNT, and is usually used in the production of toluene diisocyanate, which is used to produce flexible polyurethane foams.
A heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid used in medicine, industry, and in explosives.
An explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications.
The salts derived from perchloric acid, that are often found near contaminated industrial sites.