GeoForm™ Reagents

GeoForm™ Biogeochemical Reagents are engineered to deliver the building blocks needed to promote in situ biogeochemical reactions. GeoForm provides a source of sulfate, ferrous iron, electron donors, pH buffer and nutrients to promote mechanisms for dehalogenation via enhanced anaerobic bioremediation, abiotic degradation and the formation of reactive minerals.

The component ratios have been optimized to maximize the formation of reactive iron sulfide minerals that provide an expanded surface area for abiotic degradation pathways. In addition, the amount of electron donor can be adjusted based on site specific geochemistry. GeoForm can be used for the treatment of groundwater and saturated soil impacted by persistent halogenated compounds and will also immobilize many heavy metals.

GeoForm is available in two formulations – a fully soluble formulation for ease of injection and a solid formulation for extended release. 

GeoForm™ Soluble:

  • Formulated to deliver as a fully soluble dry powder in two parts:
    • GeoForm™ Soluble Mix - a proprietary blend of sulfate and ferrous iron
    • ELS Dry Concentrate - a powdered concentrate version of ELS Microemulsion organic carbon substrate
  • Remains fully in solution during mixing and injection
  • Ideal for plume and hot-spot treatment 
  • Longevity of 2-3 years 
  • Application via injection wells, infiltration networks or direct push 

 

GeoForm™ Extended Release: 

  • Formulated with a long-lasting source of hydrogen donor and zero valent iron (ZVI) for continued rejuvenation of iron sulfide minerals 
  • Ideal for Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and source area treatment 
  • Longevity of 5-10 years 
  • Application via direct push, hydraulic or pneumatic fracturing or soil mixing  

 

GeoForm Chart

Overview

Key Benefits
  • Multiple mechanisms for contaminant degradation
  • Promotes higher reaction rates
  • Treats mixed plumes with CVOCs and heavy metals
  • Improved distribution properties / reactive surface area
  • Minimal generation of daughter products
  • Improved longevity
  • pH balanced
EXAMPLE CONTAMINANTS
  • Chlorinated Solvents
  • Chlorobenzenes
  • Energetic Compounds
  • Most Pesticides
  • Haloalkanes
  • Nitrate Compounds

  • Contaminants Treated

    Chlorinated Solvents

    • Tetrachloroethene (PCE)
      -

      Tetrachloroethene (PCE)

      A colorless liquid that is mobile in groundwater, toxic at low levels, and has a high density, making cleanup activities more difficult than for oil spills.

    • Trichloroethene (TCE)
      -

      Trichloroethene (TCE)

      A chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used in dry cleaning and degreasing. Solubility in water 1.28 g / L and a log Kow of 320. May form dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Anticipated to be a human carcinogen. MCL of 5 ppb.

    • Dichloroethene (cis and trans DCE)
      -

      Dichloroethene (cis and trans DCE)

    • Trichloroethane (TCA)
      -

      Trichloroethane (TCA)

      A chloroalkane with two isomers (1,1,1- TCA and 1,1,2 – TCA) used widely as a solvent, especially in the electronics industry. It is considered insoluble in water and may for dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Low toxicity but may impact central nervous system. MCL of 0.2 ppm.

    • Dichloroethane (DCA)
      -

      Dichloroethane (DCA)

      A chlorinated hydrocarbon that is not easily soluble in water, but miscible with most organic solvents. A common source of the contaminant in drinking water is from the discharge from industrial chemical factories.

    • Carbon tetrachloride
      -

      Carbon tetrachloride

      An organic compound formerly used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent.

    • Chloroethane
      -

      Chloroethane

      Commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, it is a colorless, flammable gas or refrigerated liquid with a faintly sweet odor. Ethyl chloride is the least toxic of the chloroethanes. Exposure to ethyl chloride may occur from using consumer products containing it, including solvents, refrigerants, topical anesthetics, and in dyes, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

    • Chloroform
      -

      Chloroform

      A colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is considered somewhat hazardous. Chloroform may be released to the air as a result of its formation in the chlorination of drinking water, wastewater and swimming pools. Other sources include pulp and paper mills, hazardous waste sites, and sanitary landfills.

    • Chloromethane
      -

      Chloromethane

      Also called methyl chloride, R-40 or HCC 40, it is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes. Low levels of methyl chloride occur naturally in the environment, but higher levels may occur at chemical plants where it is or was made.

    • Chlorotoluene
      -

      Chlorotoluene

      A group of three isomeric chemical compounds. They (ortho-chlorotoluene, meta-chlorotoluene, and para-chlorotoluene) consist of a disubsituted benzene ring with one chlorine atom and one methyl group.

    • Methylene chloride
      -

      Methylene chloride

      Also called Dichloromethane (DCM), it is a colorless, volatile liquid with a moderately sweet aroma and is widely used as a solvent in paint strippers and removers; as a process solvent in the manufacturing of drugs, pharmaceuticals, and film coatings; as a metal cleaning and finishing solvent in electronics manufacturing; and as an agent in urethane foam blowing.

    • Vinyl chloride
      -

      Vinyl chloride

      An organochloride used chiefly in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and may be a daughter product formed during the reductive dechlorination of TCE and DCE. Solubility in water 2.7 g / L and a Kow of 15. It is a known human carcinogen and causes liver damage. MCL of 2 ppb.

    • Dichloropropane
      -

      Dichloropropane

      A colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor, it is used to make other organic chemicals, lead free gasoline, paper coating, soil fumigant for nematodes, and insecticide for stored grain.

    • Dichloropropene
      -

      Dichloropropene

      A colorless liquid with a sweet smell that is a byproduct in the chlorination of propene to make allyl chloride. The general public may be exposed via inhalation near source areas or from the consumption of contaminated drinking water from wells near some hazardous waste sites.

    • Hexachlorobutadiene
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      Hexachlorobutadiene

      A colorless liquid at room temperature that has an odor similar to that of turpentine. Also known as HCBD, it is primarily produced in chlorinolysis plants as a by-product in the production of carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene.

    • Tetrachloroethane
      -

      Tetrachloroethane

      1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130a) - A colorless liquid with a sweet chloroform-like odor that is used as a solvent and in the production of wood stains and varnishes. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130) – A chlorinated derivative of ethane. It has the highest solvent power of any chlorinated hydrocarbon.

    • Trichloropropane
      -

      Trichloropropane

      Produced via the chlorination of propylene and as a byproduct of processes primarily used to produce.

    Phenols

    • Pentachlorophenol
      -

      Pentachlorophenol

      Pure pentachlorophenol exists as colorless crystals and impure pentachlorophenol is dark gray to brown and exists as dust, beads, or flakes. It is used as a pesticide, a disinfectant and as a wood preservative for utility poles, railroad ties, and wharf pilings.

    Chlorobenzenes

    • Dichlorobenzene
      -

      Dichlorobenzene

      1,2-Dichlorobenzene or ortho-dichlorobenzene - A colourless liquid that is poorly soluble in water but miscible with most organic solvents. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene or meta-dichlorobenzene. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene or para-dichlorobenzene - A colorless solid with a strong odor.

    • Trichlorobenzene
      -

      Trichlorobenzene

      1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene - A colorless liquid used as a solvent for a variety of compounds and materials. 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene - Colorless crystals, whereas the other isomers are liquids at room temperature.

    Fluorinated Compounds

    Pesticides & Herbicides

    • α-Chlordane
      -

      α-Chlordane

      An organochlorine compound used as a pesticide.

    • Kepone
      -

      Kepone

      A highly chlorinated organic pesticide that was used as an insecticide. Also known as chlordecone, it is a tan to white, crystalline, odorless solid.

    • Heptachlor Epoxide
      -

      Heptachlor Epoxide

      Created when a substance called heptachlor is released to the environment and mixes with oxygen. It was used to kill termites found in the home and farmers used it to kill insects found on farm crops.

    • Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)
      -

      Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)

      An organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.

    • DDT, DDD, DDE
      -

      DDT, DDD, DDE

      Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely–related compounds. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) make up the balance. DDE and DDD are also the major metabolites and breakdown products in the environment.

    • Toxaphene
      -

      Toxaphene

      A mixture of approximately 200 organic compounds, formed by the chlorination of camphene.

    • Dieldrin
      -

      Dieldrin

      Can be formed from the synthesis of hexachloro-1,3-cyclopentadiene with norbornadiene in a Diels-Alder reaction, followed by epoxidation of the norbornene ring and is known to resist bacterial and chemical breakdown processes in the environment.

    • 2,4-D
      -

      2,4-D

      Manufactured from chloroacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenol, which is itself produced by chlorination of phenol.

    • 2,4,5-T
      -

      2,4,5-T

      A synthetic auxin.

    • Endrin
      -

      Endrin

      is an organochloride that was primarily used as an insecticide and rodenticide and infamous as a persistent organic pollutant and banned in many countries.

    Miscellaneous

    • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
      -

      Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

      Odorless, tasteless, clear to pale-yellow, viscous liquids (highly chlorinated mixtures are more viscous and deeper yellow), that are found in electric motors, transformers and capacitors.

    • Nitrates
      -

      Nitrates

      Produced by a number of species of nitrifying bacteria and are mainly produced for use as fertilizers in agriculture because of their high solubility and biodegradability.

    Energetics

    • TNT
      -

      TNT

      A yellow colored solid sometimes used as a reagent in chemical synthesis, found in military explosives or industrial applications.

    • DNT
      -

      DNT

      A pale yellow crystalline solid that is well known as a precursor to TNT, and is usually used in the production of toluene diisocyanate, which is used to produce flexible polyurethane foams.

    • Nitroglycerine
      -

      Nitroglycerine

      A heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid used in medicine, industry, and in explosives.

    • HMX
      -

      HMX

    • RDX
      -

      RDX

      An explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications.

    • Perchlorate
      -

      Perchlorate

      The salts derived from perchloric acid, that are often found near contaminated industrial sites.