ISGS® Technology

PeroxyChem's ISGS® remediation technology utilizes a permanganate-based solution to geochemically stabilize dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in the aquifer.

Permanganate and other proprietary reagents are selected depending upon the particular characteristics of each location and custom mixed on site into an aqueous solution that can be injected into an aquifer either through existing wells or direct push technology. As the solution migrates through the treatment area it oxidizes contaminants yielding partial mass removal. The ISGS technology also reacts with contaminants in the treated area thereby coating NAPL surfaces with stable mineral precipitates that reduce mass flux.

Overview

KEY BENEFITS
  • Prevents contaminants from leaching into environment
  • Application and treatment can be done in situ
  • Can be more cost effective and efficient than conventional cement stabilization
EXAMPLE CONTAMINANTS
  • PAHs
  • Chlorinated Solvents
  • Creosote
TECHNOLOGY: IN SITU STABILIZATION

When released into the environment, chlorinated solvents, coal tar, creosote, and heavy crude oil are frequently present as DNAPL and represent a long term secondary source of contamination. Physical removal or in situ remediation of DNAPL is not always practicable due to the depth of contamination, aquifer geology, the presence of physical surface structures, or other factors making hydraulic containment (e.g., long-term pump-and-treat) or in situ stabilization the only viable remedial action. The process of In Situ Stabilization prevents or slows harmful chemicals from contaminated soil, sediment and sludge, from leaching into the environment. The contaminants are chemically immobilized under ground making them less likely to be released into the environment.

Key Functions
  • Fixed well injections
  • Direct push injections
  • Case Studies
    • ISGS® Technology Pilot Study Report & Field Performance Assessment

      This report summarizes field observations, analytical results for soil cores and "crust" analyses on soil cores collected approximately 60 days after treatment. In addition, it presents the data associated with the Variance requirements associated with the use of the material.

  • Contaminants Treated

    Chlorinated Solvents

    • Tetrachloroethene (PCE)
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      Tetrachloroethene (PCE)

      A colorless liquid that is mobile in groundwater, toxic at low levels, and has a high density, making cleanup activities more difficult than for oil spills.

    • Trichloroethene (TCE)
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      Trichloroethene (TCE)

      A chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used in dry cleaning and degreasing. Solubility in water 1.28 g / L and a log Kow of 320. May form dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Anticipated to be a human carcinogen. MCL of 5 ppb.

    • Dichloroethene (cis and trans DCE)
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      Dichloroethene (cis and trans DCE)

    • Trichloroethane (TCA)
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      Trichloroethane (TCA)

      A chloroalkane with two isomers (1,1,1- TCA and 1,1,2 – TCA) used widely as a solvent, especially in the electronics industry. It is considered insoluble in water and may for dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Low toxicity but may impact central nervous system. MCL of 0.2 ppm.

    • Dichloroethane (DCA)
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      Dichloroethane (DCA)

      A chlorinated hydrocarbon that is not easily soluble in water, but miscible with most organic solvents. A common source of the contaminant in drinking water is from the discharge from industrial chemical factories.

    • Carbon tetrachloride
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      Carbon tetrachloride

      An organic compound formerly used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent.

    • Chloroethane
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      Chloroethane

      Commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, it is a colorless, flammable gas or refrigerated liquid with a faintly sweet odor. Ethyl chloride is the least toxic of the chloroethanes. Exposure to ethyl chloride may occur from using consumer products containing it, including solvents, refrigerants, topical anesthetics, and in dyes, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

    • Chloroform
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      Chloroform

      A colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is considered somewhat hazardous. Chloroform may be released to the air as a result of its formation in the chlorination of drinking water, wastewater and swimming pools. Other sources include pulp and paper mills, hazardous waste sites, and sanitary landfills.

    • Chloromethane
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      Chloromethane

      Also called methyl chloride, R-40 or HCC 40, it is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes. Low levels of methyl chloride occur naturally in the environment, but higher levels may occur at chemical plants where it is or was made.

    • Chlorotoluene
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      Chlorotoluene

      A group of three isomeric chemical compounds. They (ortho-chlorotoluene, meta-chlorotoluene, and para-chlorotoluene) consist of a disubsituted benzene ring with one chlorine atom and one methyl group.

    • Methylene chloride
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      Methylene chloride

      Also called Dichloromethane (DCM), it is a colorless, volatile liquid with a moderately sweet aroma and is widely used as a solvent in paint strippers and removers; as a process solvent in the manufacturing of drugs, pharmaceuticals, and film coatings; as a metal cleaning and finishing solvent in electronics manufacturing; and as an agent in urethane foam blowing.

    • Vinyl chloride
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      Vinyl chloride

      An organochloride used chiefly in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and may be a daughter product formed during the reductive dechlorination of TCE and DCE. Solubility in water 2.7 g / L and a Kow of 15. It is a known human carcinogen and causes liver damage. MCL of 2 ppb.

    • Dichloropropane
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      Dichloropropane

      A colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor, it is used to make other organic chemicals, lead free gasoline, paper coating, soil fumigant for nematodes, and insecticide for stored grain.

    • Dichloropropene
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      Dichloropropene

      A colorless liquid with a sweet smell that is a byproduct in the chlorination of propene to make allyl chloride. The general public may be exposed via inhalation near source areas or from the consumption of contaminated drinking water from wells near some hazardous waste sites.

    • Hexachlorobutadiene
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      Hexachlorobutadiene

      A colorless liquid at room temperature that has an odor similar to that of turpentine. Also known as HCBD, it is primarily produced in chlorinolysis plants as a by-product in the production of carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene.

    • Tetrachloroethane
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      Tetrachloroethane

      1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130a) - A colorless liquid with a sweet chloroform-like odor that is used as a solvent and in the production of wood stains and varnishes. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (R-130) – A chlorinated derivative of ethane. It has the highest solvent power of any chlorinated hydrocarbon.

    • Trichloropropane
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      Trichloropropane

      Produced via the chlorination of propylene and as a byproduct of processes primarily used to produce.

    Phenols

    • Phenol
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      Phenol

      A white crystalline solid that is volatile; it was first extracted from coal tar, but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) from petroleum.

    Chlorobenzenes

    • Chlorobenzene
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      Chlorobenzene

      Chlorobenzene will enter the atmosphere from fugitive emissions connected with its use as a solvent in pesticide formulations and as an industrial solvent. Releases into water and onto land will dissipate due to vaporization into the atmosphere and slow biodegradation in the soil or water.

    Haloalkanes

    Pesticides & Herbicides

    • Kepone
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      Kepone

      A highly chlorinated organic pesticide that was used as an insecticide. Also known as chlordecone, it is a tan to white, crystalline, odorless solid.

    • α-Chlordane
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      α-Chlordane

      An organochlorine compound used as a pesticide.

    • Heptachlor Epoxide
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      Heptachlor Epoxide

      Created when a substance called heptachlor is released to the environment and mixes with oxygen. It was used to kill termites found in the home and farmers used it to kill insects found on farm crops.

    • Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)
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      Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)

      An organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.

    • DDT, DDD, DDE
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      DDT, DDD, DDE

      Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely–related compounds. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) make up the balance. DDE and DDD are also the major metabolites and breakdown products in the environment.

    • Toxaphene
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      Toxaphene

      A mixture of approximately 200 organic compounds, formed by the chlorination of camphene.

    • Dieldrin
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      Dieldrin

      Can be formed from the synthesis of hexachloro-1,3-cyclopentadiene with norbornadiene in a Diels-Alder reaction, followed by epoxidation of the norbornene ring and is known to resist bacterial and chemical breakdown processes in the environment.

    • 2,4-D
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      2,4-D

      Manufactured from chloroacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenol, which is itself produced by chlorination of phenol.

    • 2,4,5-T
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      2,4,5-T

      A synthetic auxin.

    • Endrin
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      Endrin

      is an organochloride that was primarily used as an insecticide and rodenticide and infamous as a persistent organic pollutant and banned in many countries.

    Heavy Metals

    • Mercury
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      Mercury

      A shiny silver-white metal, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid under normal environmental conditions. The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds, including dimethylmercury and methylmercury.

    • Arsenic
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      Arsenic

      A metalloid used mainly for strengthening alloys of copper and especially lead, that could be found as a result of erosion of natural deposits or runoff from orchards, glass and electronics production wastes.

    • Barium
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      Barium

      A soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal that is found in discharge from drilling wastes and metal refineries, and from erosion of natural deposits.

    • Cadmium
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      Cadmium

      A heavy metal that is used in the smelting of iron, copper and lead ores and in pigments, batteries and metal plating. Exposure is primarily from burning of fossil fuels and incineration. It is listed as a possible carcinogen by the EPA (Group B1) and may lead to lung and kidney disease. The maximum contaminant level goal set by EPA for groundwater is 5 ppb.

    • Chromium
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      Chromium

      A steely-gray, lustrous, hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point, found in discharge from steel and pulp mills, and erosion of natural deposits.

    • Cobalt
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      Cobalt

      A hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. The main source of the element is as a by-product of copper and nickel mining.

    • Copper
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      Copper

      A ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity, found in corrosion of household plumbing systems and erosion of natural deposits.

    • Lead
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      Lead

      A soft and malleable metal, which is regarded as a heavy metal and poor metal, that could be found due to corrosion of household plumbing systems or erosion of natural deposits.

    • Nickel
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      Nickel

      A transition metal that is hard and ductile, usually distributed evenly in soil but typically accumulates at the surface from deposition by industrial and agricultural activities.

    • Selenium
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      Selenium

      A nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between those of sulfur and tellurium, found in discharge from petroleum refineries and mines, and in erosion of natural deposits.

    • Zinc
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      Zinc

      A bluish-white, lustrous, diamagnetic metal, most commonly used as an anti-corrosion agent, and can be found at high levels in industrial or mining areas.