Terramend® Reagent

Terramend® aerobic bioremediation reagent is a cost effective treatment technology for soils impacted by organic compounds. The Terramend technology is advantageous because it can often be applied without excavation, generates no odors or leachate, and does not result in soil bulking (1-3% soil mass application rates typical).

An independent audit conducted by the U.S. EPA concluded that the technology represented a safe, effective, and cost-efficient means of treating soils (US EPA/540/R-95/536 July, 1996).

Two Terramend formulations are available and selected based on site conditions and targeted contaminants. Terramend Carbon treats soils containing recalcitrant compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, and chlorophenols (including pentachlorophenol). Terramend Inorganic treats biodegradable compounds, including BTEX, GRO, DRO, and TPH.

PeroxyChem will develop an appropriate dosing level and treatment approach for your site, based on contaminant mix, remedial goals and other site specific factors.

Overview

Key Benefits
  • Hydrophilic Character
  • Balanced Range Of Nutrients
  • Improved Ecology
  • Accelerated Treatment
EXAMPLE CONTAMINANTS
  • Petroleum
  • Phthalates
  • Selected Herbicides
  • Chlorophenols
TECHNOLOGY: AEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION

Aerobic bioremediation is the addition of oxygen and nutrients to accelerate naturally occurring bioremediation through natural biological processes. The process helps facilitate the conversion of biodegradable compounds to CO2 and H2O.

Key Functions
  • In Situ landfarming
  • Ex Situ treatment cells or windrows
  • Case Studies
  • Contaminants Treated

    BTEX

    • Benzene
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      Benzene

      A colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell, it is a natural constituent of crude oil, an aromatic hydrocarbon, and one of the most elementary petrochemicals. The greatest use of benzene is as a building block for making plastics, rubber, resins and synthetic fabrics like nylon and polyester. Other uses include: as a solvent in printing, paints, dry cleaning, etc.

    • Toluene
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      Toluene

      An aromatic hydrocarbon and a constituent of crude oil and gasoline, widely used as a solvent. Solubility in water 0.47 g / L and a log Kow of 2.73. May form light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs). Little carcinogenic potential. MCL of 1 ppm.

    • Ethylbenzene
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      Ethylbenzene

      A highly flammable, colorless liquid with an odor similar to gasoline. The greatest use — more than 99 percent — of ethylbenzene is to make styrene, another organic liquid used as a building block for many plastics. It is also used as a solvent for coatings, and in the making of rubber and plastic wrap.

    • Xylenes
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      Xylenes

      An aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of a benzene ring with two methyl substituents, Xylenes are mainly produced as part of the BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylenes) extracted from the product of catalytic reforming known as "reformate".

    PAHs

    • Acenaphthene
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      Acenaphthene

      A colorless solid that consists of naphthalene with an ethylene bridge connecting positions 1 and 8. Coal tar consists of about 0.3% of this compound.

    • Acenaphthylene
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      Acenaphthylene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of acenaphthene. Like most PAHs, acenaphthylene is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.

    • Anthracene
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      Anthracene

      A solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), obtained from coal tar. Anthracene is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.

    • Benzo(a)anthracene
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      Benzo(a)anthracene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the chemical formula C18H12.

    • Benzo(a)pyrene
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      Benzo(a)pyrene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) found in coal tar, listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC.

    • Benzo(b)fluoranthene
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      Benzo(b)fluoranthene

      An organic compound with the chemical formula C20H12.

    • Benzo(ghi)perylene
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      Benzo(ghi)perylene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the chemical formula C22H12.

    • Chrysene
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      Chrysene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is a natural constituent of coal tar and creosote, a chemical used to preserve wood.

    • Dibenzo(ah)anthracene
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      Dibenzo(ah)anthracene

      A common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) made of five fused benzene rings. It is white to light yellow crystalline solid.

    • Fluorene
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      Fluorene

      Obtained from coal tar, it is insoluble in water and soluble in benzene and ether, and is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.

    • Naphthalene
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      Naphthalene

      The simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, it is a white crystalline solid with a characteristic odor that is detectable at concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm by mass. Most naphthalene is derived from coal tar.

    • Phenathrene
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      Phenathrene

      A composite of phenyl and anthracene. Phenanthrene appears as a white powder having blue fluorescence.

    • Pyrene
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      Pyrene

      A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of four fused benzene rings, resulting in a flat aromatic system. Pyrene is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.

    Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    • GRO (gasoline range organics)
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      GRO (gasoline range organics)

      A colorless liquid with characteristic odor that is found in petroleum and used as a fuel and a solvent; it reacts with strong oxidants, which generates fire and explosion hazard.

    • DRO (diesel range organics)
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      DRO (diesel range organics)

      An oily, colorless liquid, that is used as a solvent, in organic synthesis, as a distillation chaser, in jet fuel research, in manufacturing of paraffin products; and in the rubber industry, paper processing industry, and a component of gasoline, which may result in its release to the environment through waste streams.

    • ORO (oil range organics >C20 alkane)
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      ORO (oil range organics >C20 alkane)

      Colorless crystals or a white crystalline solid that is found in paraffin waxes used to form candles, and is a component of fuel oil and lubricating oil.

    • Creosote (coal tar)
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      Creosote (coal tar)

      The portion of chemical products obtained by the distillation of a tar that remains heavier than water. It is used as a wood preservative and contains a number of phenols, cresols, and other organic compounds.

    Phenols

    • Phenol
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      Phenol

      A white crystalline solid that is volatile; it was first extracted from coal tar, but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) from petroleum.

    • 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol
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      4-chloro-3-methyl phenol

      A pinkish to white crystalline solid with a phenolic odor. Also known as p-Chlorocresol, it is used as an antiseptic and preservative.

    • 2-chlorophenol
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      2-chlorophenol

      An organic compound that is a colorless to light brown liquid and is a derivative of phenol. It is an intermediate in the polychlorination of phenol.

    • 2,4-dichlorophenol
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      2,4-dichlorophenol

      A colorless crystalline solid with a medicinal odor. Used primarily as an intermediate in the preparation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).

    • 2,4-dinitrophenol
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      2,4-dinitrophenol

      An inhibitor of efficient energy (ATP) production in cells with mitochondria. Commercial DNP is primarily used for scientific research and in manufacturing.

    • 4-nitrophenol
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      4-nitrophenol

      A phenolic compound that is used in the manufacturing of methyl and ethyl parathion, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (acetominophen), dyestuffs and as a leather treatment agent, which may result in its release to the environment through waste streams.

    • Pentachlorophenol
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      Pentachlorophenol

      Pure pentachlorophenol exists as colorless crystals and impure pentachlorophenol is dark gray to brown and exists as dust, beads, or flakes. It is used as a pesticide, a disinfectant and as a wood preservative for utility poles, railroad ties, and wharf pilings.

    Chlorobenzenes

    • Chlorobenzene
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      Chlorobenzene

      Chlorobenzene will enter the atmosphere from fugitive emissions connected with its use as a solvent in pesticide formulations and as an industrial solvent. Releases into water and onto land will dissipate due to vaporization into the atmosphere and slow biodegradation in the soil or water.

    Pesticides & Herbicides

    • Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)
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      Lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)

      An organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.

    • 2,4-D
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      2,4-D

      Manufactured from chloroacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenol, which is itself produced by chlorination of phenol.

    • 2,4,5-T
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      2,4,5-T

      A synthetic auxin.

    Miscellaneous

    • Acetone
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      Acetone

      A colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest ketone, that is mainly released into the environment from industrial activity, but also is naturally released from plants, trees, volcanic gases and forest fires.

    • Nitrates
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      Nitrates

      Produced by a number of species of nitrifying bacteria and are mainly produced for use as fertilizers in agriculture because of their high solubility and biodegradability.

    • Bis(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate
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      Bis(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate

      A compound that is the most common of the class of phthalate plasticizers.

    • Propylbenzene
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      Propylbenzene

    • Trimethylbenzene
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      Trimethylbenzene

      Constitute a group of substances of aromatic hydrocarbons, which structure consists of a benzene ring with three methyl groups (–CH3) as a substituent.