In situ treatment to an active petroleum service station site in the coastal plain of Florida, USA
A historical release of gasoline affected a 1,550-square-meter area and a volume of 9,600 cubic meters of a sandy aquifer. A layer (3 centimeter maximum) of LNAPL was present in a 56-square-meter area. Klozur® CR (5384 kg) was applied to the source area (450 square meters) and PermeOx® Plus (2455 kg) was applied to the balance of the plume as aqueous slurries using temporary direct push points to a maximum depth of 17 meters below ground surface.
Three months post-amendment application, the size of the plume area was reduced by 70% and Florida Groundwater Target Cleanup Goals (similar to MCLs) were achieved within the PermeOx® Plus application area and have been maintained through four consecutive quarterly monitoring events. Initial results in the Klozur® CR application area showed near complete treatment of lighter hydrocarbons, and higher concentrations of heavier hydrocarbons which is likely attributable to high-pH induced desorption from soils or dissolution from the NAPL.